In languages which don’t initialize values, this needs to be explicitly done in order to avoid capturing what random bytes are in memory when run.

An example taken from coreboot:

diffoscope output of the two different builds of the same coreboot image

The code used to write a data structure directly without initializing all its fields. The fix was pretty simple once identified:

--- a/util/bimgtool/bimgtool.c
+++ b/util/bimgtool/bimgtool.c
@@ -160,7 +160,7 @@ static const struct crc_t crc_type = {
 static int write_binary(FILE *out, FILE *in, struct bimg_header *hdr)
        static uint8_t file_buf[MAX_RECORD_BYTES];
-       struct bimg_data_header data_hdr;
+       struct bimg_data_header data_hdr = { 0 };
        size_t n_written;
        data_hdr.dest_addr = hdr->entry_addr;

Usage of instrumentation tools able to detect such cases like Valgrind should help identifying such problems.